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Action and Maintenance. In the precontemplation stage, the individual is unaware of the consequences of risk behavior, does not seek information and is not interested in changing health behavior in a positive direction.

In the contemplation stage, the individual weighs the benefits of the change and compares them to the costs of change. They are aware of the need for change, but if the costs are considered to be excessive, further steps are not taken. In the preparation stage, the individual is already prepared to take certain steps and possesses an action plan.

In the action stage, he individual takes specific steps to protect their health. As awareness increases, the chances of returning to past behavior decrease.

Real behavior change can be achieved in the maintenance stage, after at east six months.

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In the primary research outlined in the present study, TTM was used by our group to investigate the transition to a healthy diet. From an economic point of view, the elements of health behavior that manifest themselves in spb diabetes treatment center are shopping and consumption.

Consumers approach the market with basic decision styles. These can be defined as mental shopping orientations that characterize consumer choices [27]. To measure the diversity of decision styles, the Consumer Style Inventory, hereinafter referred to as the CSI test [28].

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CSI has been validated in many countries around the world e. CSI has been used in the past in general commerce [30, 31]in the monitoring of online behavior [28]and in organic food buying [32]among others. In addition to exploring the decision-making styles and attitudes related to the purchase and consumption of health foods, it was also considered important to carry out a study in the online space, as this is one of the most relevant information source and communication interfaces today.


Health communication nowadays — obtaining information online According to data, there are approximately 5.

Benetoli et al. Disadvantages of social media included questionable credibility, information overload and the increased time spent online, among others. Johns et al. As a result of their research, it was found that social media had no effect on giving up smoking or weight loss, but had an effect on increased physical activity.

As an axiom, it can be stated that digital communication is an integral part of of the advanced societies of today. Research in the online space is a useful addition to a type of marketing research that are group has been working on.

Netnography is a qualitative research method that adapts the techniques of netnographic studies to examine the culture of online communities [38].

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It can be used to understand the mindset and decision-making mechanisms of online consumer groups [39]. Ten years ago, Dörnyei and Mitev [40] recorded the spb diabetes treatment center forms of online communication: instant messengers, e-mail lists, game interfaces, chat applications, blogs, search engines, forums, social media sites. In terms of their usage, these channels have undergone a radical change. While blogs and forums flourished intoday consumers barely use these platforms at all.

Materials and methods In our research, the goal was to examine consumer attitudes towards health foods, which we analyzed in the common subset of physical activity and the diet. The research took place between April and November ofand then a follow-up was performed in April by repeating our netnographic analyses.

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Our studies were carried out in three stages. In the first step of primary data collection, a netnographic research was conducted with data recorded in a search engine on the one hand and the content analysis of of posts and spb diabetes treatment center made groups of publicly available social sites on the other hand.

The interests of consumers present in the online space, as well as changes in them were detected in terms of health-conscious eating and physical activity. In the second stage of our research, two focus group interviews were conducted. The impact of regular exercise on the purchase and consumption of health foods was examined, and the implications of this in developing and maintaining a diet considered to be healthier by consumers.

The differentiating factor for inclusion in the groups was performing regular physical activity, so an active and a passive group were created. At the start of the study, participants introduced themselves one by one, and then they had a conversation for a few minutes under the guidance of the moderator, creating group cohesion and an atmosphere of trust.

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The first part of the scenarios examined the factors that play a role in the development of a healthy lifestyle. In the second block, buying and consumption habits related to health foods were explored.

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The transtheoretical model of behavior change was incorporated spb diabetes treatment center the scenarios, and it was examined with respect to the topic of healthy eating. In both cases, group discussions took place in an informal style and lasted an hour and a half. Minutes and audio recordings of the discussions were taken, which allowed for accurate analysis.

In the third stage of our research, an online questionnaire survey was conducted, which was shared several social media groups with the help of dietitians. A total of people completed the questionnaire. To ensure representativeness, the sample was adjusted so that it reflects the composition of the Hungarian population in terms of gender distribution. As a result, mathematical-statistical analyses were performed on a sample of people.

In addition to key demographic data, based on Eurobarometer [9] surveys, statements related to physical activity and sedentary lifestyle were formulated, which were classified as background variables in the analysis. The questionnaire included the Hungarian translation of the Consumer Style Inventory CSIwhich was adapted and modified spb diabetes treatment center health foods based on the research of Prakash et al.

As a result, 25 statements were formulated that respondents had to rate on a Likert scale of 1 to 5. The transtheoretical model of behavior change was incorporated into the questionnaire and it was examined in relation to healthy eating. Based on the focus group discussions, expansion of the TTM statements was considered to be justified, so the 6-point ordinal scale of Szabó [41] was incorporated in the questionnaire.

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This essentially separates the 5 stages defined in the literature by dividing the action phase into two subcategories. The main goal of our quantitative research was to identify consumer attitudes in the CSI adapted to health foods. To achieve this, in the first step the normal distribution of the variables was tested, and then the reliability of the scales was analyzed, in each case obtaining good or excellent reliability.

Following this, factor analysis was performed using the CSI variables. After running several possible procedures, principal component analysis was finally applied with Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization. The KMO criterion of factor analysis was met, exhibiting an almost excellent value 0. As a result, the explanatory power of the model has improved.

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A total of four factors were created to form differentiated attitude structures. The analysis was performed using the K-means clustering procedure, during which four well-separated, homogeneous groups were identified, based on consumer attitudes in the CSI.

Characterization of each cluster was performed by cross-tabulation analysis and analysis of variance. Results and spb diabetes treatment center evaluation 4. Different search engines and browsers have been optimized for different terms, and so search results and and hit lists may differ from each other.

We used the Google search engine through the Google Chrome cukorbetegség és az artériás magas vérnyomás kezelésére both in and As a first step, our results were compared to those of Gál et al.

Then the changes in search hits were identified for terms related to healthy eating and regular exercise over the intervening two years. Changes in nutrition-related keyword search results are shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Changes in nutrition-related keyword search results Gál et al.

The number of hits has increased nearly tenfold in four years. Search results for terms related to both nutrition and sports are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.

Search results for nutrition and sports terms The number of hits for search engine terms shows a variable rate increase. After defining the keywords, posts from publicly accessible pages were analyzed, and this was followed up by monitoring in The popularity of forum portals continued to show a royal milk cukorbetegség kezelésében trend, so those sites were not investigated.

However, it is important to note that there was a periodic activity in the case of forum portals e. It is assumed that this can be attributed to the quarantine caused by the pandemic. But the explosive growth of social media groups has now almost completely overridden the activity of forum portals.

In Hungary, of the social media sites, currently the trinity of Facebook, Instagram and YouTube is the most popular among active internet users. In addition to the three basic pillars, also appearing are Tik-Tok, which is mainly used by young people, and Twitter, which is less popular in Hungary but more popular internationally.

Of social media, the analysis of Facebook pages and groups was chosen, because nowadays most of the internet user community communicates on this interface.

All open and closed groups, as well as pages, with at least 3, members and followers were examined. Only Hungarian groups and pages were analyzed.

View Affiliations Affiliations: I. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

In addition to keywords, their vercukorszint eves utan variations were also used e. Four main topics were identified during the analysis of the groups and pages, and these are illustrated in Figure 3.

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Figure 3. Social media content on nutrition and physical activity Based on diabetic neuropathy guidelines nice analyses, when weighing nutrition and exercise, the topic of healthy eating clearly appears in a more pronounced way in the interest of consumers. In addition, there is an increasing emphasis on gluten- and dairy-free eating and different types of diets.

This confirms the previous research results of Gál et al. The most common content in Facebook groups or pages in the common subset of diet and exercise is a combination of workout plans and recipes. Particularly popular contents are home exercises that can be performed without any aids or with minimal use of aids e. The content encountered second most frequently is requests for suggestions on a health problem or a change in lifestyle or diet.

This is most noticeable regarding the topic of eating, less content requesting suggestions is found on exercise and physical activity. The third most common content is providing advice or information. In the case spb diabetes treatment center this type of content, mainly articles and stories, often with questionable authenticity, from associated sites appear on the pages, as well as short videos and infographics.

Advice on the topic of physical activity is typically about how to start exercising regularly, what pitfalls and difficulties one might encounter. In the field of nutrition, the most common are discussion initiating contents related to gluten and sugar consumption, as well as dairy products and caffeine. Other major type of content is the presentation of motivational examples. Overall, it can be stated that healthy eating and physical activity are popular activities among internet users.

In the common subset of diet and exercise, the emphasis was typically on issues related to nutrition in the media examined by us. The most popular types of content are spb diabetes treatment center in nature and have a community-building power. Results of focus group studies 4. In the first block of the scenario, we sought to answer the question what similarities and differences could be detected between the groups in the topic of health.

Regarding the groups, it can be generally said that in the subjective assessment of health, the active group considers their lifestyle to be healthy, while the passive group considers it to be unhealthy. In spb diabetes treatment center development of a healthy lifestyle, the groups studied unanimously thought that the right amount and quality of sleep, proper nutrition, mental health and regular exercise were vital.

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Following this, the groups had to rank 15 factors according to the influence spb diabetes treatment center each component. Based on the ranking thus developed, the 5 most important factors according to each group are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. The most important features of a healthy lifestyle Regarding the second most important features of the groups, 2 factors were raised to the same level by each group, as in neither case were they able to reduce the ranking to 1 component at this level. Nutrition and exercise were considered to be relevant by both groups, but it should be emphasized that information, accessibility and adequate financial situation were the most important for the passive group.

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Regarding the transition to a healthy lifestyle, the groups studied had to make arguments as to why spb diabetes treatment center could be easy, as well as what would be difficult in the process. Overall, the same factors were listed both as pros and cons. Customer and consumer habits and motivations related to health foods There are differences between the categories of food most often purchased and consumed by the two groups.

The passive group consumed a higher proportion of meat products, quick-frozen and processed foods. The active group preferred seasonal fruits and vegetables, dairy products and fresh bakery products. Members of the active group, according to their own statements, plan their purchases in advance, while impulse buying is more common among the passive group. These advantages include lower energy content, mainly through the reduction of fat content or the omission of sugars, enrichment in certain minerals Ca, Se, Mgdepletion in others Naaddition of multivitamins or the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in different foods.

The active group bought more types of health food more often than the passive group. It was characteristic of both groups that subjects had changed their eating habits over the previous year. Nutritional trends affected the active group, but they usually researched a diet before trying it.

Members of the passive group are generally said to be uninterested in different trends, as well as dietary recommendations.

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Regarding the purchase and consumption of food, the active group considers the healthiness of food to be the most important factor, while for the passive group it is value for money. For the passive group, in addition to easy availability, previous positive experience has an impact on food buying habits.

Differences in the transition to a healthy diet based on the TTM Using the statements translated by Soós et al. Stages in the behavior change are described below, with examples of the statements made: Precontemplation: In the next six months, I do not intend to switch to a diet I consider healthier; Contemplation: I feel a strong urge to switch to a diet I consider healthier; Preparation: Over the next month, I will be taking steps to spb diabetes treatment center to a diet I consider healthier; Action: Over the past six months, I have switched to a diet I consider healthier; Maintenance: I have been eating healthier for over six months now.

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Based on this, it can be concluded that the passive group is less open to developing and maintaining a health-conscious diet. Overall, it can be stated that great emphasis is placed on the consumption of health foods among the group who perform physical activity regularly.

Purchases are planned more purposefully by the active group and, according to their own statements, their diet is more based on awareness.